|The talents of children and adolescents need to be identified and acknowledged by their environment to maximize their full potential, considering not only their cognitive and intellectual achievements, but also their social and emotional development. The educational system plays an important role in this development. However, due to multiple reasons, this identification is difficult in case of learners with large intra-individual differences. This is for instance the case for gifted learners with learning, developmental or behavioral problems. The talents of these so-called twice-exceptional learners can be masked by their problems, or vice versa. In this PhD-project, it will be studied how the recognition of the educational needs of learners with characteristics of giftedness could be improved, leading to more knowledge about - and practical tools for - the identification of talented and twice-exceptional learners.