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Entrance knowledge requirements

During the selection interview, knowledge questions are asked to assess the knowledge level of the candidate. Upon acceptance, candidates may be asked to acquire extra knowledge before the programme by self-study. The keywords listed below are important as entrance knowledge for the programme. Prospective students are requested to recapitulate these subjects before the start of the introduction course.

Bioinformatics Introductory Module is available via Brightspace for admitted students to level out starting differences in bioinformatics hands-on knowledge.  This introductory course module should allow new MMD students - via self-study and hands-on exercises - to acquire sufficient bioinformatics knowledge and experience to participate successfully in the regular MMD courses and modules. This Bioinformatics Introductory Module thus precedes the MMD Master's program and as such cannot be obligatory or assessed. However, we strongly advise the upcoming students to view and/or complete this module before they start in Nijmegen.

Knowledge requirements: keywords and textbook sources

To give you an idea of the basic knowledge that we presume candidates have acquired, a list of keywords is provided:

Adaptive/acquired immunity; innate immunity; antigen presentation; autoimmunity; mechanisms preventing autoimmunity; B cell; T cell; regulatory T cell; general morphology of immune-associated tissues (lymph node, spleen, thymus); Toll-like receptors; dendritic cell; vaccination; tolerance; tissue rejection in transplantation; inflammation; leukaemia; gram positive and gram negative bacteria; types of viruses; retroviruses; HIV; stem cells; regenerative medicine.

Biochemical pathways (glycolysis, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, nucleotide metabolism, fundamentals of amino acid metabolism), membrane transport (channels, transporters, pumps), redox metabolism; detoxification; oxidative stress; cytoskeleton; cell motion; muscle motion; motor proteins; vesicle transport; intracellular protein transport; synthesis and posttranslational modifications of transmembrane proteins; signal hypothesis; subcellular structure (structure of membranes, cellular organelles and their structure and function, nuclear pore complex, proteasome, ribosome); kidney physiology, brain.

Chromosomal organization of genes; DNA replication; DNA repair; transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression; epigenetics; RNA polymerases; RNAi; mRNA processing; protein synthesis (translation), protein folding and posttranslational modifications; protein turnover; ubiquitination; organelles; protein routing (targeting) signals; vesicular transport; cell-cycle and cell-cycle control; meiosis; hormones; second messenger; calcium signalling; heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors; kinase receptor; small G-proteins (ras); MAPK pathway; apoptosis; embryonic and adult stem cells; neurodegeneration; neuronal transmission; cell transformation; characteristics of cancer cells; p53; oncogene; tumour suppressor gene; cell-cell contacts (tight junctions, adherens junctions, gap junctions); extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interactions; recombinant DNA techniques, protein biochemical techniques, cell transfection techniques; enzyme kinetics.

The immunology-related subjects can be found in most immunology textbooks, such as Parham: The Immune System, Taylor & Francis Inc, 4th edition (2014). Current MMD students recommend Abbas, Basic immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune system. Digital versions of the 2nd edition can be found on the internet. Also standard textbooks that contain the required basic Molecular and Cellular Biology knowledge can be accessed online (Molecular Biology of the Cell - 4th Ed., by Bruce Alberts et al.; Molecular Cell Biology - 8th Ed., by Harvey Lodish et al.).