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Populism and Political Parties Expert Survey (POPPA)

1 January 2018 until 1 January 2026
Project member(s)
Dr M.J. Meijers (Maurits) Dr A.S. Zaslove (Andrej) , Robert Huber
Project type

The Populism and Political Parties Expert Survey (POPPA) dataset measures positions and attitudes of over 250 parties on key attributes. Here, attributes related to populism, political style, party ideology, and party organisation are measured, in 28 European countries. The first wave of the expert survey was fielded between April and July 2018 to 294 country-experts. In 2022, a second wave will be fielded. 

The principal motivation for the expert survey is to provide a better understanding of key party characteristics related to populism and political representation. Rather than imposing one specific definition of populism and specifying which parties are to be classified as populist, POPPA aims to measure the relevant constitutive dimensions underlying dominant conceptualizations of populism for all political parties in each party system.



Our previous round of data collection resulted in the 2018 data available on Harvard Dataverse ( data has been widely used in the political science community (ca. 3,400 downloads).

The accompanying paper was published in Comparative Political Studies (


Political Science, Radboud University Nijmegen

Contact information