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Residence, Social Security and Citizenship Strategies of Older Migrants

Title Residence, Social Security and Citizenship Strategies of Older Migrants

The aim of this research project was to gain insight into the residence and social security strategies of people who migrate later in life. Older migrants face specific risks and uncertainties related to their age. Their social security needs are clearly different from those of younger migrants. How does this influence their migratory decisions? How do they gain or retain access to various (public, family, private) resources and provisions in their ‘home’ and their ‘host’ state? How do they respond to, or make use of, the relevant legal framework (social security law, immigration law) in both states? What difference does their citizenship status make? The research focused on older migrants who moved to Turkey after having spent (most of) their working lives in the Netherlands. The research population included Dutch retirement migrants as well as Turkish retirement returnees.


Anita Böcker
Canan Balkir (Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkije)



  • Böcker, A. & C. Balkir (2015), Maintaining dual residences to manage risks in later life: A comparison of two groups of older migrants, in: V. Horn & C. Schweppe (eds.), Transnational Aging. Current Insights and Future Challenges. New York and London: Routledge Publications, pp. 125-140.
  • Balkir, C. & A. Böcker (2015), A Comparison of Residence, Social Security and Citizenship Strategies of Turkish Return Migrants and Dutch Retirement Migrants in Turkey, in: A.B. Tokat Karaçay, D. Sert & Z. Gülru Göker (eds.), Waves of Diversity: Socio-Political Implications of International Migration in Turkey. Istanbul: Isis Press, pp. 179-224.

Böcker, A.G.M. & Balkir, C. (2012). Migration in Later Life. Residence, social security and citizenship strategies of Turkish return migrants and Dutch retirement migrants in Turkey. (Nijmegen Migration Law Working Papers Series 2012/2). Nijmegen: Centre for Migration Law (http://dare.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/99154).