Becoming a PhD candidate
At the Institute for Management Research (as is the case for all Dutch universities), a PhD degree can be pursued either as an internal or an external PhD candidate. The skills required for both categories of PhD candidates are identical, and their doctoral degrees are equally valued and appreciated; the distinction between the two types of PhD candidates lies in their formal relationship with the faculty.
Here, you can find more information on PhD trajectories at the RU, including a brochure at the bottom left. Here, you can find more information on Dutch academia.