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Niet-bancaire kredietverlening - Een blik in de black box

The Dutch Minister of Finance Wopke Hoekstra delivered the research report “Niet-bancaire kredietverlening – een blik in de black box” by Sascha Füllbrunn, Dirk-Jan Janssen and Utz Weitzel to the Dutch House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer). The research project aimed to open the ‘black box’ of online credit provision in the Netherlands for small companies and self-employed people, for whom the consumer credit protection does not hold. The researchers analysed the web-pages of the credit providers, conducted a survey with the credit takers and the credit providers, and sent registered self-employed people to request credits from the online credit providers (Mystery Shopping).

They find the effective annual rate (jaarlijkse kostenpercentages) within a range of 8% and 421%, depending on the credit amount and duration. The relevant cost factors were often not clearly communicated such that the rates provided are still estimates for some of the credit providers. The credit takers only received detailed information after submitting personal information. Even though the credit providers advertise their background check to be quick and without the necessity to provide plenty of documents, the actual process did not always match the promise as mystery shoppers found out. However, the survey in line with earlier reports shows that the number of credit requests and credit needs was still below 25%. At the very end, those respondents requested regular bank loans often lacking further knowledge about alternative financing opportunities.

The Dutch Ministry of Finance commissioned this project. The researchers got valuable support from the AFM, Stichting MKB Financiering, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy, DYNATA, EXCAP and colleagues from the Institute for Management Research.

The report next to the letter of the Dutch Minister of Finance is available here.

Project members

Dr Sascha Füllbrunn
Dr Dirk-Jan Janssen
Prof. Utz Weitzel


The Dutch Ministry of Finance


Tender from the Dutch Ministry of Finance


2019 - 2020