IO BIO: BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY SGs IOs

IO BIO, BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF SECRETARIES-GENERAL
OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
www.ru.nl/fm/iobio (please, use this short URL) and iobio@fm.ru.nl

IO BIO entries A-D
IO BIO entries E-J
IO BIO entries K-M
IO BIO entries N-R
IO BIO entries S-Z

Author Instructions

IO BIO Documents Page

IO BIO, Edited by Bob Reinalda, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands and Kent Kille, The College of Wooster, Ohio USA; Assistant Editor: Jaci Eisenberg, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva Switzerland

The Secretaries-General (SGs) of International Organizations (IOs) - or other executive heads with different titles - are the chief executives and representatives of international bureaucracies that vary in size and shape. This position has standing within International Relations theory and many IO personalities are known for their roles in international politics. However, there is still a gap in our understanding of the people in these posts, both individually and collectively, in terms of who they are and how they affect the performance of IOs. The biographical literature on SGs is limited, giving an incomplete picture of the variety of people in these positions and the interactions between them. To overcome this shortcoming IO BIO, Biographical Dictionary of Secretaries-General of International Organizations provides short biographies of individual SGs (see below) which are structured in a consistent manner in order to also provide the basis for prosopographies (Claude Nicolet defined the aim of prosopography as the history of groups as elements in political and social history, achieved by isolating series of persons having certain political or social characteristics in common and then analyzing each series in terms of multiple criteria, in order both to obtain information specific to individuals and to identify the constants and the variables among the data for whole groups; see http://prosopography.modhist.ox.ac.uk/prosopdefinition.htm.)of groups of SGs (descriptions of the social and professional connections of these individuals).

IO BIO is open to contributions, click here for the IO BIO overview of entries and call for participants: IO BIO Flyer May 2022 (pdf, 213 kB). When applying to write an entry, please provide your name, institutional affiliation, and contact information, and provide the arguments for why you are a good author for this entry. To express an interest, or for more information, please contact us at: iobio@fm.ru.nl.
Entries 'under construction' and other IO BIO Documents, discussing the Project, are shown at the IO BIO Documents Page.

D.A.Davies WMO Fridtjof Nansen LoN robinson bruntland Halfdan Mahler WHO Rajchman LoN IO BIO button nieuw

The IO BIO Flyer provides  an overview of published IO BIO entries (A-Z, both persons and IOs). Among the described are Arthur Davies (WMO), Fridtjof Nansen (League of Nations HCR), Mary Robinson (UNHCHR), Gro Brundtland (WHO), Halfdan Mahler (WHO) & Ludwik Rajchman (League of Nations HO).

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IO BIO AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS, TOOLS and DATABASES 1 & 2:

AUTHOR INSTRUCTIONS for the Three Sections of an IO Entry: IOBIO Author Instructions March 2015 (pdf, 139 kB)
TOOLS TO FIND MORE DATA ABOUT MY SG: Tools to Find More Data about My SG August 2018 (pdf, 117 kB)
IO BIO DATABASE 1: PERSONS AND ENTRIES: IO BIO Database 1 Version March 2017 (pdf, 1 MB)
IO BIO DATABASE 2: IGOs INCLUDED AND THEIR SGsIO BIO Database 2 Version March 2017 (pdf, 939 kB)

How To Cite The IO BIO Website?
IO BIO, Biographical Dictionary of Secretaries-General of International Organizations, Edited by Bob Reinalda, Kent J. Kille and Jaci Eisenberg, www.ru.nl/fm/iobio, Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR (please, use this short URL)

IO BIO Copyright © Bob Reinalda and Kent Kille as Editors of this work & the Contributors

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IO BIO entries A-D

ADATCI, Mineitciro, PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE, 1931-1933, by Seiko MimakiADATCI-M-10December2020-June2021 (pdf, 363 kB).
AMANO, Yukiya, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, 2009-2019, by Yasuhito FukuiAmano-Y-2September2020 (pdf, 269 kB).
ANNAN, Kofi Atta, UNITED NATIONS, 1997-2006, by Chloé MaurelAnnan-KA-4November2019 (pdf, 372 kB).
AVENOL, Joseph, LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1933-1940, by Bob Reinalda: Avenol-J-21August2012-Mar15 (pdf, 132 kB).
BAENA SOARES, João Clemente, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES, 1984-1994, by Guilherme Casarões: BaenaSoares-J-18November2013-Mar15 (pdf, 194 kB).
BERTINI, Catherine Ann, WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME, 1992-2002, by Kirsten HaackBertini-CA-19January2018 (pdf, 179 kB)
BEYEN, Johan Willem, BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS, 1937-1939, by Bob Reinalda: Beyen-JW-20 March2018 (pdf, 168 kB)
BLACK, Eugene Robert, INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT / WORLD BANK (GROUP), 1949-1962, by Michael G. Schechter: Black-ER-1October2014-May2021 (pdf, 286 kB).
BOERMA, Addeke Hendrik, WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME, 1962-1967, and FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 1968-1975, by Bob ReinaldaBoerma-AH-10December2020 (pdf, 181 kB).
BOUTROS-GHALI, Boutros Youssef, UNITED NATIONS, 1992-1996, and INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF LA FRANCOPHONIE, 1997-2002, by Flora Pidoux: Boutros-Ghali-BY-23September2019-May2021 (pdf, 551 kB).
BRUNDTLAND, Gro Harlem, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1998-2003, by Auriane Guilbaud: Brundtland-GH-9June2014-Mar15 (pdf, 174 kB).
BUSTANI, José Maurício de Figueiredo, ORGANIZATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS, 1997-2002, by Dawisson Belém Lopes: Bustani-JM-19January2015-Mar15 (pdf, 1 MB).
BUTLER, Harold Beresford, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1932-1938, by Jaci Leigh Eisenberg: Butler-HB-21August2012-May2021 (pdf, 2,9 MB).
CANDAU, Marcolino Gomes, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1953-1973, by Marcos Cueto and Bob ReinaldaCandau-MG-18October2015c (pdf, 234 kB)
CARRINGTON, Peter Alexander Rupert, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, 1984-1988, by Hendrik W. OhnesorgeCarrington-PAR-20July2018 (pdf, 268 kB)
CAVALCANTI, Geraldo Holanda, LATIN UNION, 1997-2000, by Dawisson Belém Lopes and Diego Vasconcelos NetoCavalcanti-GE-1September2015 (pdf, 158 kB)
CHAN, Margaret, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 2007-2017, by Bob ReinaldaChan-M-1June2021 (pdf, 486 kB).
CHISHOLM, George Brock, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1948-1953, by Auriane Guilbaud: Chisholm-B-21August2014-June2021 (pdf, 258 kB).
CLAUSEN, Alden Winship, INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT / WORLD BANK GROUP, 1981-1986, by Michael G. Schechter: Clausen-AW-17April2015-May2021 (pdf, 285 kB)
COLE, William Sterling, INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, 1957-1961, by Michael G. Schechter: Cole-WS-20January14-Mar15 (pdf, 177 kB).
CROWDY, Rachel Eleanor, LEAGUE OF NATIONS’ SOCIAL AFFAIRS SECTION, 1919-1931, by Martyn Housden: Crowdy-RE-4February2014-May2021 (pdf, 289 kB).
CURCHOD, Charles Louis, INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION, 1869 and 1873-1889, by Simone Fari and Gabriele Balbi: Curchod-CL-25September2017 (pdf, 264 kB)
DAVIES, David Arthur, WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION, 1956-1979, by Daniel Gorman: Davies-DA-7June2016-June2021 (pdf, 519 kB).
DE BOER, Yvo, UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE SECRETARIAT, 2006-2010, by Thomas Hickmann and Sebastian BreuerDe Boer-Y-19November2016 (pdf, 288 kB)
DE LAROSIÈRE, Jacques Martin Henri Marie, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 1978-1987, and EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1993-1998, by Kendall W. StilesDe Larosière-JMHM-10May2016-May2021 (pdf, 627 kB)
DIALLO, Boubacar Telli, ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY, 1964-1972, by Bob ReinaldaDIALLO-BT-4May2022 (pdf, 2,3 MB)
DRUMMOND, James Eric, LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1919-1933, by Karen Gram-SkjoldagerDrummond-JE-25January2017-May2021 (pdf, 791 kB)

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IO BIO entries E-J

EVANS, Luther Harris, UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, 1953-1958, by Chloé Maurel: Evans-L-11March2013-Mar15 (pdf, 156 kB).
GARDINER, Robert Kweku Atta, UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA, 1962-1975, by Samuel Misteli: Gardiner-R-28May2014-May2021 (pdf, 298 kB).
GAVIRIA TRUJILLO, César Augusto, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES, 1994-2004, by Carolyn M. Shaw: Gaviria-CA-29July2015 (pdf, 174 kB).
GOAD, Edward Colin Viner
, INTER-GOVERNMENTAL MARITIME CONSULTATIVE ORGANIZATION, 1968-1973, by Michael G. Schechter: Goad-ECV-4March2015-May2021 (pdf, 646 kB)
GRANT, James Pineo, UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, 1980-1995, by Joel E. Oestreich: Grant-JP-29May2016 (pdf, 256 kB)
HANSENNE, Michel, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1989-1999, by Marieke Louis: Hansenne-M-13June2016-May 2021 (pdf, 402 kB)
HAVEMAN, Bastiaan Wouter, INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION, 1962-1969, by Marijke van FaassenHaveman-BW-18February2017 (pdf, 242 kB)
HOFFMAN, Paul Gray, UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL FUND, 1959-1965, and UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, 1966-1972, by Michael G. Schechter: Hoffman-PG-19January2015-Mar15 (pdf, 171 kB).
HOLTROP, Marius Wilhelm, BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS, 1958-1967, by Bob ReinaldaHoltrop-MW-15February2021-May2021 (pdf, 324 kB).
HUXLEY, Julian Sorell, UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, 1946-1948, by Chloé Maurel: Huxley-JS-21August2012-May2021 (pdf, 319 kB).
IDRIS, Kamil Eltayeb, WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION and INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NEW VARIETIES OF PLANTS,1997-2008, by Joan van Heijster and Thomas R. EimerIdris-KE-7March2016 (pdf, 247 kB)
INGRAM, James Charles, WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME, 1982-1992, by Sebastian Schindler: Ingram-J-22April2014-Mar15 (pdf, 210 kB).
ISMAY, Hastings Lionel, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, 1952-1957, by Michael G. Schechter: Ismay-HL-21August2012-May2021 (pdf, 278 kB).
JENKS, Clarence Wilfred, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1970-1973, by Jaci Leigh Eisenberg: Jenks-CW-8February2016-May2021 (pdf, 5,5 MB)
JOHNSTON, Donald James, ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1996-2006, by Aynsley Kellow and Peter Carroll: Johnston-DJ-23May2013-Mar15 (pdf, 175 kB).

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IO BIO entries K-M

KEENLEYSIDE, Hugh Llewellyn, UNITED NATIONS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION, 1950-1958, by David WebsterKeenleyside-HL-20July2018 (pdf, 248 kB)
KIRCHNER
, Néstor, UNION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NATIONS, 2010, by Andrea Ribeiro Hoffmann: Kirchner-N-21August2012-Mar15 (pdf, 212 kB).
KRISTENSEN, Thorkil, ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION, 1960-1961, and ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1961-1969, by Matthias Schmelzer: Kristensen-T-13June2016 (pdf, 253 kB).
LESTER, John Ernest (known as Seán), LEAGUE OF NATIONS, 1940-1946, by Michael Kennedy: Lester-JE-21January2015-Mar15 (pdf, 175 kB).
LIE, Trygve Halvdan, UNITED NATIONS, 1946-1953, by James P. Muldoon, Jr. (†) and Ellen Jenny RavndalLie-TH-22October2017-May2021 (pdf, 3,2 MB).
LUNS, Joseph Antoine Marie Hubert, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION, 1971-1984, by Jan-Willem Brouwer and Ine (C.M.) MegensLuns-JAMH-19May2015 (pdf, 173 kB)
M’BOW, Amadou Mahtar, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1974-1987, by Roger A. CoateM'Bow-AM-23November2018 (pdf, 194 kB)
MAHEU, René, UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, 1961-1974, by Chloé Maurel: Maheu-RGE-21August2012-Mar15 (pdf, 139 kB)
MAHLER, Halfdan Theodor, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1973-1988, by Tine Hanrieder: Mahler-H-18May2017 (pdf, 223 kB)
MANSHOLT, Sicco Leendert, COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY, 1972-1973, by Bob Reinalda: Mansholt-SL-5June2013-Mar15 (pdf, 227 kB)
MARJOLIN, Robert Ernest, ORGANISATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION, 1948-1955, by Alix Heiniger: Marjolin-RE-2June2014-Mar15 (pdf, 719 kB).
MAYOR ZARAGOZA, Federico, UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION, 1987-1999, by Chloé Maurel: Mayor-F-28June2019 (pdf, 185 kB).

McDONALD, James Grover, LEAGUE OF NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES COMING FROM GERMANY, 1933-1935, by Bob ReinaldaMcDONALD-JG-24January2016 (pdf, 1,7 MB)
McNAMARA, Robert Strange
, INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT / WORLD BANK GROUP, 1968-1981, by Michael G. Schechter: McNamara-RS-8Aug2013-May2021 (pdf, 302 kB)
MEYER, Eugene Isaac, INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1946, by Michael G. Schechter: Meyer-EI-9February2015-May2021 (pdf, 324 kB)
MICHELMORE, Laurence Victor, UNITED NATIONS RELIEF AND WORKS AGENCY FOR PALESTINE REFUGEES IN THE NEAR EAST, 1964-1971, by Michael G. SchechterMichelmore-LV-2July2015 (pdf, 2,8 MB)
MICHIELS VAN VERDUYNEN, Louis Paul Marie Hubert, PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION, 1905-1929, by Arthur Eyffinger: Michiels van Verduynen-LPMH-2June2019 (pdf, 188 kB)
MORSE, David Abner, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1948-1970, by Daniel Maul: Morse-DA-15Janaury2013-May2021 (pdf, 4,5 MB)
MYRDAL, Gunnar, UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR EUROPE, 1947-1957, by Chloé Maurel: Myrdal-G-10March2014-May2021 (pdf, 307 kB).

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IO BIO entries N-R

NAKAJIMA, Hiroshi, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1988-1998, by Kayo TakumaNakajima-H-16February2019 (pdf, 166 kB)
NANSEN, Fridtjof
, LEAGUE OF NATIONS’ HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, 1921-1930, by Francesca Piana: Nansen-F-31July2018 (pdf, 259 kB).
OGATA, Sadako, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, 1991-2000, by Michael G. Schechter: Ogata-S-4November2019 (pdf, 242 kB)
OREJA AGUIRRE, Marcelino, COUNCIL OF EUROPE, 1984-1989, by Marina Pérez de ArcosOreja-M-19April2017-May2021 (pdf, 483 kB)
ORFILA, Washington Alejandro José Luis, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES, 1975-1984, by Klaas Dykmann: Orfila-WAJL-10February2017 (pdf, 163 kB).
ORR, John Boyd, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 1945-1948, by Amy L. SaywardOrr-JB-1June2021 (pdf, 358 kB).
PATE, Maurice, UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN’S EMERGENCY FUND/UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND, 1947-1965, by Michael G. Schechter: Pate-M-9February2016 (pdf, 711 kB).
PHELAN, Edward Joseph, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1941-1948, by Geert Van GoethemPhelan-EJ-24January2016-May2021 (pdf, 408 kB).
PIOT, Peter Karel, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 1994-2008, by Yves BeigbederPiot-PK-26October2021 (pdf, 934 kB).
PREBISCH, Raúl Federico, UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA, 1950-1963, and UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT, 1964-1969, by Edgar J. Dosman: Prebisch-RF-31July2018 (pdf, 428 kB).
RAJCHMAN, Ludwik Witold, LEAGUE OF NATIONS’ HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 1921-1939, by Marta A. Balinska: Rajchman-LW-31July2018 (pdf, 237 kB).
RICUPERO, Rubens, UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT, 1995-2004, by Dawisson Belém Lopes: Ricupero-R-4March2015 (pdf, 168 kB).
ROBERTSON, George Islay McNeill,NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, 1999-2003, by Delphine Deschaux-DutardRobertson-GIM-7May2018 (pdf, 166 kB)
ROBINSON, Mary Therese Winifred, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, 1997-2002, by Michael G. Schechter: Robinson-MTW-4March14-Mar15 (pdf, 178 kB).

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IO BIO entries S-Z

SALIM, Salim Ahmed, ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY, 1989-2001, by Ulf EngelSalim-SA-24January2016 (pdf, 188 kB)
SALTER, James Arthur, LEAGUE OF NATIONS’ ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL SECTION, 1919-1920 and 1922-1931, by Bob ReinaldaSalter-JA-27January2022 (pdf, 1 MB)
SAOUMA, Edouard Victor
, FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, 1976-1993, by Michael D.V. Davies: Saouma-E-15January2013-Mar15 (pdf, 185 kB).
SPAAK, Paul-Henri, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, 1957-1961, by Michael G. Schechter: Spaak-P-H-19January2015-Mar15 (pdf, 183 kB).
STIKKER, Dirk Uipko, NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, 1961-1964, by Bob Reinalda: Stikker-DU-13June2014-Mar15 (pdf, 235 kB).
STOKES, John, EUROPEAN COMMISSION OF THE DANUBE, 1856-1871, by Constantin Ardeleanu: Stokes-J-20April2018-May2021 (pdf, 752 kB)
STOLTENBERG, Thorvald, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMSSIONER FOR REFUGEES, 1990, by Michael G. Schechter: Stoltenberg-Th-14November2014-Mar15 (pdf, 186 kB).
THANT, U, UNITED NATIONS, 1961-1971, by Bernard J. FirestoneThant-U-21October2019 (pdf, 200 kB).
THOMAS, Aristide Albert, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1919-1932, by Adeline BlaszkiewiczThomas-AA-10December2020-May 2021 (pdf, 340 kB).
UNCKEL, Per, NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, 2003-2006, by Tobias Etzold: Unckel-P-21August2012-Mar15 (pdf, 153 kB).
VAN HEUVEN GOEDHART, Gerrit Jan, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, 1951-1956, by Jeroen Corduwener and Bob Reinalda: Van Heuven Goedhart-GJ-21August2012-Mar15 (pdf, 453 kB).
VAN LENNEP, Emile, ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 1969-1984, by Matthieu Leimgruber and Samuel BeroudVan Lennep-E-28December2017 (pdf, 251 kB)
VIEIRA DE MELLO, Sérgio, UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, 2002-2003, by Dawisson Belém Lopes and Matheus de Carvalho HernandezVieira de Mello-S-7April2017 (pdf, 172 kB)
WINANT, John Gilbert, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION, 1939-1941, by Alexandru GrigorescuWINANT-JG-19September2016-May2021 (pdf, 273 kB)
WITTEVEEN, Hendrikus Johannes, INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 1973-1978, by Bob ReinaldaWitteveen-HJ-29April2019 (pdf, 176 kB)
WOODS, George David, INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT / WORLD BANK GROUP, 1963-1968, by Michael G. Schechter: Woods-GD-21August2012-May2021 (pdf, 287 kB).
WYNDHAM WHITE, Eric, GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE, 1948-1968, by Francine McKenzie: WyndhamWhite-E-21August2012-May2021 (pdf, 340 kB).

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IO BIO Copyright © Bob Reinalda and Kent Kille as Editors of this work & the Contributors

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